Interesting paper showing turnout effects during Jim Crow from Confederate monuments. Here’s the abstract:
Confederate monuments have become central to modern debates over racism and discrimination in America. In this paper, I explore the contemporaneous socio-political effects of Confederate monuments in the Post-Reconstruction South. I combine data on Confederate monuments with election and census data to create an election-year panel dataset of former confederate counties between 1878–1912, then exploit the temporally staggered and geographically distributed dedication of Confederate monuments using a generalized difference-in-differences design. I find that monument dedications caused increases in voting for the pro-Jim Crow Democratic party, decreases in voter turnout, and negatively impacted black demographic trends on average. I also find varying effects based on monument characteristics and the racial makeup of a county. The results have implications for current debates over Confederate monuments in the United States.