Its intrusion into the census could well have unanticipated consequences for the long-term distribution of power and money. Census results drive both political representation and funding — for large groups of people in broad areas. This means the decision to roll loaded dice on enumeration does not merely impact undocumented individuals, or permanent residents or minority citizens. Everyone in an area that loses numbers also loses clout and cash.
Yes, an undercount affects urban minorities — but also conservative rural agricultural communities dependent on farmworkers, and plenty of areas in between.